Glossary


Agroecosystem: A crop field is an ecosystem in which ecological processes found in other vegetation formations such as nutrient cycling, predator/prey interactions, competition, commensalism and successional changes occur.

Antifeedants: Natural chemicals in the plant that discourage herbivore feeding.

Autocidal techniques: The use of insects for self-destruction, chiefly by release of sterile individuals.

Commensalism: A simple type of positive interaction in which one population benefits and the other is not affected to any measurable degree.

Extra floral nectary: A gland on a part of a plant other than the flower that secretes a sugary fluid which pollinators utilize for food.

Floral nectary: A gland in the flower that secretes a sugary fluid which pollinators utilize for food.

Guild: An association of, in this case, groups of insect species with similar feeding habits.

in vitro: Used to indicate experiments conducted in the laboratory.

in vivo: Used to indicate experiments conducted in the field.

Landscape ecology: The study of spatial variation in landscapes at a variety of scales.
It includes the biophysical and societal causes and consequences of landscape
heterogeneity.

Mass rearing: The breeding and raising of insects to be released in large numbers.

Multitrophic: Many trophic levels. A trophic level is one made up of organisms whose food is obtained from plants by the same number of steps. For example, green plants occupy the first trophic level, plant eaters (herbivores, etc.) occupy the second trophic level, carnivores that eat the herbivores occupy the third trophic level and perhaps a fourth.

Paradigm: An overall concept accepted by most people because of its effectiveness in explaining a complex process, idea or set of data.

Parasitoid: An insect that lives in its immature stages in or on another insect, which it kills after completing its own feeding.

Pathogen: Any agent, especially a microorganism, capable of causing disease.

Pheromone: An external chemical that passes between individuals of the same species and controls within-species interactions including aggregation of both sexes, sexual stimulation and trail following.

Protease inhibitor: A substance that restricts the action of protease. Protease is an enzyme that digests protein.

Refugia: Refugium: A sanctuary for--in this case--insects that allows them to live, regardless of external conditions, and from which a new dispersion can take place.

Saprophyte: An organism that feeds on dead organic matter.

Semiochemicals: Any class of substances produced by organisms, especially insects, that participates in the regulation of their behavior in such activities as aggregation of both sexes, sexual stimulation and trail following.

Terpenoids: Any compound with an isoprenoid structure similar to that of terpene hydrocarbons. Terpene is a moderately toxic, flammable unsaturated hydrocarbon liquid found in essential oils and plant oleoresins, used as an intermediate for camphor and menthol.


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